December 2011 issue
[2(6) 2011]

Southern Cross Publishing Group© 2011

December 2011 issue
Some post harvest properties of Iranian genotype of raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.)

Habibeh Nalbandi, Sadegh Seiiedlou, Jafar Hajilou, Mohammad Adlipour

Abstract

In this study, some physical and nutritional properties of Iranian genotype of raspberry were studied. The results of the present study were used to identify optimal configuration of raspberry process equipments as well as design and construct the process equipment. The average values of lightness, redness, yellowness and color density of raspberries were 6.44, -2.22, 0.33 and 2.24, respectively. These values show that the color of raspberries is almost black and could be categorized among black raspberries. Raspberry sphericity is about 92% and could be assumed as a sphere. Raspberry had the lowest and highest static coefficient of friction on plywood and steel, respectively. High sphericity causes the raspberry to roll rather than slid on a specific surface. So the handling of this product could be done using chute. The chute angle could be assumed as the same of tilted surface with wooden sheet. The amount of true density was obtained 1043.61 kg m-3. So raspberries will immerse during the washing process and it is possible to separate them from foreign materials during this process. The amount of bulk density and porosity were obtained 491.93 kgm-3 and 52.86%, respectively. The repose angle of raspberries was high (73.5). The values of length, diameter, equivalent diameter and the nutritional properties such as dry matter, pH, total acidity, TSS, total ash and vitamin C were measured.

Pages 155-159
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Review Article

Bioremediation strategies for oil polluted marine ecosystems

Alfred O. Ubalua

Abstract

The marine environment is subject to contamination by organic pollutants from a variety of sources. Significant degradation of these compounds may take many years and it is frequently necessary to consider methods that can accelerate this process. While seeding with oil degraders have not convincingly demonstrated to be effective, addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been documented to have increased rates of petroleum biodegradation. The prospects for enhanced biological degradation of petroleum organic compounds are reviewed in this paper. A conceptual framework that can be adapted for the development of techniques for dealing with oil pollution will be discussed. These include physical, chemical, and biological methods. A number of different technologies may fall into the category of biological methods. They include the use of straw or plant material as an absorbent for oil, biosurfactants to clean oiled surfaces, and the addition of materials to encourage microbiological biodegradation of oil. The present review addresses the progress that has been made in each of these aspects with particular emphasis on bioremediation.

Pages 160-168
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Clay mineralogy and its relationship with potassium forms in some paddy and non-paddy soils of northern Iran

Alireza Raheb, Ahmad Heidari

Abstract

Forms of potassium in soils have been a key focus in soil-fertility studies. Clay minerals are the main source of plant nutrients in soil, as their specific surface characteristics determine the release pattern of some important nutrients, such as potassium. Three forms of K consist of unavailable, slowly available and readily available exist in equilibrium in the soil system. Relationships between soil potassium forms within the clay mineralogical suite were determined in twenty four soil samples in three pedons from paddy soils, two from kiwifruit and one from citrus land in the north of Iran. The results showed that, the characteristics of different forms of potassium in adjacent pedons under different land uses depended on their specific clay mineralogy. Mineralogical analyses showed that smectite, illite and vermiculite were the most abundant clay minerals in the studied soils. Mean soluble and exchangeable potassium in paddy soils were rather low compared to non-paddy soils due to potassium fertilization in non-paddy soils. Non-exchangeable potassium in the samples, which was dominated by smectite, was lower than that in samples dominated by vermiculite, hydroxy-interlayer vermiculite (HIV) and illite; this was related to the inability of smectite in potassium fixation. Therefore, taking into account both exchangeable and HNO3-extractable K gives a better indication for K potential and soil-quality management.

Pages 169-175
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Invited Review Article

Trends in new technological approaches for forage crop improvement

S. K. Basu and R. Prasad

Abstract

Forage crop production constitutes an important arena of agricultural research and caters to the food and feed need of the booming global diary and livestock industry. Conventional and traditional plant breeding have been the most commonly used approach for the forage crop improvement across the planet. However, with the recent serge of the technological innovations in life sciences research, new approaches are now being regularly employed for the forage crop improvement in conjunction with the evergreen plant breeding techniques. Not just forage industry, the recent trends also indicates towards the increasing popularity of certain species for biofuel production too. This review humbly captures some of the latest molecular, biotechnological, tissue culture and genetic engineering approaches that are being tried in improving forage crop production in recent times.

Pages 176-185
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